Do you know what a thyroid nodules is?
Thyroid nodules are masses of thyroid glands that can move up and down with swallowing movements. In thyroid nodules, some nodules are solid tissues, and some nodules are filled with fluid. Therefore, thyroid degeneration, inflammation, autoimmunity, and new organisms can all appear as nodules. The condition of thyroid nodule is chronic and continuous. When the condition is not treated in time, the risk of deterioration of the patient’s thyroid nodule increases, which can easily threaten the patient’s life and safety. The treatment plan is mainly surgical resection, which can generally be cured. With sequelae, the prognosis is better.
Including diffuse and nodular goiter, the incidence is relatively high. There are many factors that can cause thyroid hyperplasia, such as high or low iodine, eating goiter-causing food, taking goiter-causing drugs, and thyroid synthase deficiency.
Toxic nodular goiter
The nodules can be single or multiple, and often occur in patients with nodular goiter for many years. The patients are over 40-50 years old, and the symptoms of hyperthyroidism are mild and atypical. Some are manifested as functionally autonomous nodules, and the thyroid tissue around the nodules is mostly atrophy.
Including thyroid benign adenomas, thyroid cancer (medullary thyroid carcinoma, undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma) and metastases. Thyroid adenoma is a common cause, divided into follicular adenoma, high-functioning thyroid adenoma, and toxic adenoma.
Most of them are caused by the degeneration of nodular goiter and adenoma and old bleeding. Some thyroid cancers and parathyroid cysts also have cystic changes. Cysts can be divided into true cysts and pseudocysts. Pseudocysts account for 95%, and are most common in nodular goiters. The cause of nodule hyperplasia, necrosis and liquefaction is currently believed to be cell necrosis caused by insufficient blood supply.
Divided into infectious and non-infectious, acute purulent nodules are extremely rare. Subacute thyroiditis is the most common and is related to viral infection.
The main cause of thyroid
When the iodine deficiency period is long, the disease develops, and the expanded follicles gather into multiple nodules of varying sizes, forming nodular goiter.
Excessive secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone
Excessive secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone can cause excessive proliferation of thyroid cells and the formation of localized nodules.
TGAb and TPOAb titers are related to the occurrence of thyroid nodules. These antibodies activate complement and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity by participating in the activation of helper T lymphocytes, leading to the destruction of thyroid cells.
Thyroid nodules and various types of thyroid cancer may be related to the mutation, activation, inhibition, and deletion of certain oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. At present, a variety of candidate genes are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid nodules, especially thyroid tumors, such as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor (TSHR), gsp, ras, ret, and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTRK) Wait.
Congenital disorders of thyroxine synthesis
Abnormalities caused by gene mutations of some key enzymes in the process of thyroxine synthesis, such as iodide transport disorder, iodinated tyrosine coupling disorder, deiodinase deficiency, etc., may cause thyroxine synthesis disorder, insufficient thyroid hormone, feedback stimulation of the pituitary gland Increased secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) leads to goiter enlargement, which may be accompanied by thyroid nodules after a long course of disease.
Specific environmental factors (such as iodine deficiency) can cause goiter, but also affect the genotype and phenotype of thyroid nodules, and play a vital role in promoting the occurrence of thyroid cancer.
Exposure to radioactive materials
Thyroid nodules are prone to occur in people who have radioactive materials in the work environment or who have received X-rays on their necks.
People who are overly obese may have a certain degree of disorder in their endocrine function, which easily induces the occurrence of thyroid nodules.
When over-fatigue, the body’s resistance to the external environment decreases, and it can be attacked by pathogens and induce thyroid nodules.
The size of the thyroid gland in men is larger than that in women, and the prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules in women is significantly higher than that in men. That is to say, women are more likely to develop goiter and thyroid nodules when exposed to risk factors such as iodine deficiency.
The prevalence of thyroid nodules increases with age. The prevalence of single nodules has no significant difference among different age groups, while the prevalence of multiple nodules increases with age.
Patients with thyroid nodules are usually caused by frequent smoking, drinking or irregular eating. If too much toxic chemicals are inhaled, it can also cause thyroid nodules, which can cause nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and even breathing. Difficulties or chest tightness can also be checked in a regular hospital respiratory department. In severe cases, oxygen can be used to relieve them. Usually, try to eat some fresh fruits and vegetables as much as possible.
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