Types of Pneumonia
Common Causes of Pneumonia
Symptoms of Pneumonia
Treat Of Pneumonia
Pneumonia generally manifests as shortness of breath and dyspnea, or disturbance of consciousness, lethargy, dehydration, loss of appetite, etc. Pneumonia is an infection in one or both lungs. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi cause it.
Read on to learn more about pneumonia and how to treat it.
Types of pneumonia
Pneumonia can also be classified according to where or how it was acquired.
1.Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)
This type of bacterial pneumonia is acquired during a hospital stay. It can be more serious than other types, as the bacteria involved may be more resistant to antibiotics.
2.Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia that’s acquired outside of a medical or institutional setting.
3.Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)
When people who are using a ventilator get pneumonia, it’s called VAP.
Aspiration pneumonia happens when you inhale bacteria into your lungs from food, drink, or saliva. This type is more likely to occur if you have a swallowing problem or if you’re too sedate from the use of medications, alcohol, or other drugs.
Common Causes of Pneumonia
1. Gram-negative bacilli infection
More common, mostly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Influenza bacillus, etc.
2. Infection of pathogenic bacteria in respiratory tract conditions
As the body’s resistance is reduced in the elderly, fungi and anaerobic bacteria often exist in the oropharynx, which can cause pneumonia.
3. Mixed infection
Elderly people often show mixed infections caused by multiple pathogens due to low immune function. Such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, etc.
4. Increased drug-resistant bacteria
Due to the large number and widespread use of antibiotics, the genes of pathogenic microorganisms have changed and drug resistance occurs. Among them, gram-negative bacilli are the most prominent.
Symptoms Of Pneumonia
Early symptoms: It is an irritating dry cough, followed by coughing up white mucus sputum or bloodshot sputum, often severe side chest pain, often acupuncture-like, aggravated with cough or deep breathing, and can radiate to the shoulders or abdomen. Due to lung consolidation, lack of ventilation, chest pain, and toxemia, it causes dyspnea, rapid and shallow breathing. A few have gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension or diarrhea.
Late symptoms: mucous bloody sputum or rust-colored sputum may be coughed up, or purulent sputum, the amount of sputum will increase in the dissipating phase, and the sputum will be yellow and thin. Affect gas exchange, make arterial blood oxygen saturation drop, and appear cyanosis. There may be confusion, irritability, lethargy, coma, etc.
Usually manifested as:
1. Chills and high fever: Typical cases start with sudden chills, followed by high fever, with a body temperature of 39°C to 40°C, presenting a type of missed fever, often accompanied by headaches, muscle aches and reduced appetite. After antibiotics are used, the fever type may not be typical, and the elderly and infirm may only have low fever or no fever.
2. Cough and sputum: the initial stage is irritating dry cough, and then white mucus sputum or bloodshot sputum is coughed up. After 1 to 2 days, mucus bloody sputum or rust-colored sputum may be coughed up, or purulent sputum may appear, and it will disappear. The amount of sputum increases during the period, and the sputum is yellow and thin.
3, chest pain: often severe side chest pain, often acupuncture-like, aggravated with cough or deep breathing, can radiate to the shoulders or abdomen. If it is lower lobe pneumonia, it can stimulate the septal pleura and cause severe abdominal pain, which is easily misdiagnosed as an acute abdomen.
4. Difficulty breathing: due to lung consolidation, insufficient ventilation, chest pain, and toxemia, it causes dyspnea, rapid and shallow breathing. When the condition is severe, the gas exchange is affected, and the arterial blood oxygen saturation decreases and cyanosis occurs.
5. Other symptoms: A few have gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, or diarrhea. Severely infected people may experience confusion, irritability, lethargy, and coma.
Treat Of Pneumonia
1. Antipyretic: Use physical cooling or antipyretic drugs when high fever.
2. Sedation: for irritability or seizures, sedatives can be given, usually phenobarbital sodium, promethazine, chlorpromazine or diazepam.
3. Clean up the respiratory tract: promptly clear mouth and nasal secretions and sputum suction, pay attention to turning over, pat the back and posture drainage, as appropriate, use the expectorant ammonium chloride, bromhexine, mucosol, etc. orally, or mucosol, hypertonic Atomized inhalation such as salt water is not suitable for antitussives.
4. Relieving asthma: For severe wheezing, compound chlorpromazine can be injected intramuscularly at 1MG/KG every 6 hours; aminophylline can also be used 2-4MG/KG at a time, diluted in 10% glucose 20-40ML, Slow intravenous drip. Isoproterenol 1MG, dexamethasone 2.5-5MG, gentamicin 20,000 U, chymotrypsin 5MG can also be used, ultrasonic atomization inhalation once every 6-8 hours. The beta-receptor agonist’s albuterol, terbutaline, etc. can also be used. Anticholinergic drugs and 22 beta-receptor agonists have a synergistic effect.
5. Oxygen therapy: give oxygen to those who are seriously ill and have obvious difficulty breathing. Generally, the nasal vestibular catheter is used to give oxygen, the oxygen flow is 0.5-1L/MIN, and the oxygen concentration does not exceed 40%. If there are three concave signs and obvious cyanosis, it is advisable to use a mask to give oxygen. The oxygen flow rate is 2-4L/MIN, and the oxygen concentration is 50%-60%. If a respiratory failure occurs, mechanical ventilation should be used to give oxygen with positive pressure. You can use this Boxym Oxygen Concentrator, with Portable 1L-7L Oxygen Concentrator with Atomization Low Noise.
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