What is lung cancer?
Primary bronchial lung cancer is referred to as lung cancer, which refers to malignant tumors that originate in the trachea, bronchus, and lungs. Lung cancer is bronchogenic carcinoma, including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. Because most of them originated from the bronchial mucosal epithelium, few of them originated from bronchial glands or alveolar epithelial cells. The incidence and mortality of lung cancer are rising rapidly, and it is a worldwide trend.
Lung cancer may not produce any noticeable symptoms in the early stages, and many people aren’t diagnosed until the disease has advanced. But some early signs and symptoms may be seen in some people.
Read on to learn about early lung cancer signs and symptoms, and how early screening may help people at high risk for the disease.
Lung cancer classification
According to the degree of differentiation, morphological and biological characteristics of lung cancer, lung cancer is currently divided into two categories, namely small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. The latter includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma.
Small Cell Lung Cancer
Including oat cell type, intermediate cell type, and composite oat cell type, characterized by rapid proliferation and early extensive metastasis. Most cancer patients present with obvious blood metastasis. The initial typical manifestation is cough and dyspnea caused by enlarged hilar masses and huge mediastinal lymph nodes, and they are more sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Non-small cell lung cancer
Including papillary type, clear cell type, small cell type and basal cell-like type. It is common in elderly men and is closely related to smoking. It mostly originates from segmental and sub-segmental bronchial mucosa. Generally, it grows slowly, metastasizes, and has more chances of surgical resection. The 5-year survival rate is higher, but it is not as sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy as small cell carcinoma.
Typical adenocarcinoma is a glandular duct or papillary structure, and it has become the most common type of lung cancer. It is more common in women, mainly originating from bronchial mucous glands, and can occur in small bronchial tubes or central airways. The clinical manifestations are mostly peripheral.
Adenocarcinoma can grow outside the trachea, or spread along the alveolar wall, with local infiltration and blood metastasis earlier, easily involving the pleura and causing pleural effusion.
Large cell lung cancer
High-grade malignant epithelial tumors usually occur in the surrounding lung parenchyma, accounting for 2.2% to 8.6% of lung cancers, and large-scale hemorrhagic necrosis is common. Large cell carcinoma metastasizes to smaller cell carcinomas late and has a greater chance of surgical resection.
Adenosquamous carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, carcinoid, salivary gland tumors, etc.
Peripheral lung cancer
Lung cancer originates in the lung segment and below the bronchus, and the lesion is located in the periphery of the lung. It accounts for about 1/4 of lung cancer. According to the histological classification of cancer cells, adenocarcinoma is more common in women, and squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated small cell types are more common in men.
Main Cause of Lung Cancer
Smoking is the leading cause of the progressive increase in lung cancer mortality.
Occupational factors that have been confirmed to cause human lung cancer include asbestos, arsenic, chromium, nickel, beryllium, coal tar, mustard gas, trichloromethyl ether, chloromethyl ether, tobacco heating products, and uranium, radium, and other radioactive materials that produce radon and radon when they decay Subgas, ionizing radiation, and microwave radiation, etc.
In heavily polluted big cities, the amount of benzopyrene contained in PM2.5 in the air every day inhaled by residents can exceed the content of 20 cigarettes and increase the carcinogenic effects of cigarettes. Carcinogens produced during passive smoking, fuel burning and cooking indoors.
Chronic lung infection
For example, in patients with tuberculosis and bronchiectasis, the bronchial epithelium metastasizes into squamous epithelium during chronic infection and eventually causes cancer.
Typical symptoms Of Lung Cancer
The tumor growth location, method and speed are different, and the cough manifestation is not the same. When the tumor cells grow in the larger airways, they are paroxysmal irritating coughing, no sputum or a little foamy sputum, and the increase in sputum volume when secondary infection is mucopurulent.
Phlegm or hemoptysis
Central lung cancer is more common, mostly with blood in the sputum or intermittent bloody sputum, and occasionally large hemoptysis.
The tumor causes bronchial stenosis and partial obstruction, which can produce localized stridor.
Chest tightness, shortness of breath
When the tumor causes bronchial stenosis, compression of the large airways, metastasis, effusion, diaphragm paralysis, superior vena cava obstruction, and extensive lung invasion, it can cause chest tightness and shortness of breath.
When the tumor invades the pleura or chest wall, it may manifest as dull pain, dull pain, and aggravate with breathing and coughing. When the ribs and spine are invaded, the pain is persistent and obvious, and has nothing to do with breathing or coughing. Persistent pain in the shoulder or chest and back often indicates the possibility of lung cancer invading the mediastinum near the mediastinum of the upper lobe.
Pneumonia or atelectasis caused by tumor compression or bronchial obstruction is often accompanied by fever and corresponding signs. Antibiotic treatment can be temporarily effective. If tumor necrosis causes fever, antibacterial therapy is ineffective.
Tumor compression of the large airways can cause inspiratory dyspnea and three concave signs.
Treatment of Lung Cancer
There are many treatment methods for lung cancer. According to the patient’s physical condition, tumor, cytology, pathology type, invasion range, and development trend, a multidisciplinary comprehensive treatment model should be adopted, and individualized treatment should be emphasized. Plan and rationally apply surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and biological targeting treatment methods in order to achieve radical cure or maximum control of tumors, increase the cure rate, improve the quality of life of patients, and prolong the survival of patients.
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