The new coronavirus is mainly transmitted through the air, that is, through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the early clinical manifestations are mainly fever and cough. As the disease progresses, more serious clinical manifestations will appear.
Etiological Characteristics of the COVID-19
The new type of coronavirus is a type of virus because its appearance is similar to the crown, coronavirus. Both the new coronavirus and SARS virus are coronaviruses, and their homology is as high as 85%, but their genetic characteristics are still significantly different from SARS virus. The new coronavirus also has the general characteristics of a virus, with genetic material inside and an envelope outside.
The new coronavirus is sensitive to ultraviolet rays and heat. At 56 degrees Celsius for 30 minutes, 75% alcohol is not good, ether, chlorine-containing disinfectants, peracetic acid and chloroform and other solvents can effectively inactivate the virus, while chlorhexidine cannot Effectively inactivate viruses.
Virus Transmission Characteristics
At present, the main source of infection of the new coronavirus is patients with new coronavirus pneumonia. The transmission method is mainly through droplets, but also through contact. There are reports that the virus can also be transmitted through feces or mouth, but it has not been determined.
The susceptible population is all the people in the population, not the elderly, as some reports claim to be infected. However, the elderly have more basic diseases, and their illnesses and death rates are higher after infection. With the increase in the number of infections, children and infants have been found to be infected, and two cases have been confirmed to be transmitted from mother to child.
According to the transmission characteristics and infection route of the new coronavirus, we can do some effective prevention. The first is that everyone is susceptible. Therefore, regardless of whether it is men, women, young or old, or in good health, prevention should be done. The main way of prevention is to wear a mask, wash hands frequently, and avoid gatherings in crowded places.
Clinical manifestations of the COVID-19
According to current statistics, the incubation period of new coronavirus pneumonia is generally 3 to 7 days, and the longest period is no more than 14 days. Therefore, the maximum period of medical observation is 14 days.
The initial clinical manifestations are mainly fever, dry cough, and fatigue. Among them, fever accounts for about 98%. Therefore, in many places, the body temperature will be measured at home for screening. There are also a few patients with nasal congestion, runny nose, diarrhea, and other symptoms. Of course, some people are infected with the virus, but there is no clinical manifestation, but he is still infectious.
As the disease progresses, the virus replicates more and more, and the body’s immune response to the virus becomes stronger and stronger. After that, severe patients will have difficulty breathing, acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and difficult to correct internal environment. Disorders and coagulopathy. Some patients have heart problems during this period, which can even be life-threatening. To observe those very serious patients, during the entire course of the disease, their body temperature may be only low fever, or even no obvious fever, this is worth noting.
In some patients, the entire course of the disease is relatively mild, but they show low-grade fever, mild fatigue, and have not entered the severe pneumonia period, and healed on their own in about a week. But during this period, he is still contagious.
According to current statistics, the total death rate of pneumonia caused by the new coronavirus is about 2.1%. Most patients recover well, children have relatively mild symptoms, and most of the deaths are elderly people or people with some underlying diseases.
Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19
To prevent covid-19, the most important thing is to do a good job of isolation, such as wearing a mask when going out, avoiding crowded places, and washing hands frequently. There are currently no drugs used to prevent the new coronavirus. The Shuanghuanglian oral liquid that came out of the Internet before pneumonia can inhibit the new coronavirus, but this does not mean that it can prevent the virus. Therefore, do not believe that any drugs can prevent viral infections.
The previous treatment of new coronavirus pneumonia is mainly symptomatic treatment, such as bed rest, oxygen inhalation, monitoring the patient’s vital signs, maintaining the balance of the internal environment such as electrolytes, and nutritional support, and giving certain antiviral treatment. If the patient is critically ill, It can be maintained by a ventilator to control complications, and artificial lungs can be used when necessary.