What are the causes of respiratory infections?
Respiratory tract infections are infectious diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma, fungi, and parasites.Upper respiratory tract infections: About 90% are caused by viruses, and bacterial infections often follow viral infections.
The disease can occur in four seasons and at any age, and it is spread through virus-containing droplets, mist, or contaminated equipment. Often when the body’s resistance is reduced, such as cold, fatigue, rain, etc., viruses or/and bacteria that have existed or invaded from the outside world quickly grow and multiply, leading to infection. The prognosis of the disease is good, self-limiting, and usually healed in 5-7 days. Often secondary to bronchitis, pneumonia, paranasal sinusitis, a small number of people can be complicated by acute myocarditis, nephritis, rheumatic fever and so on.
Lower respiratory tract infections: There are an increasing number of clinically available antibiotics, and drug-resistant strains have also increased significantly. Due to the application of high-dose cephalosporins, nosocomial infections, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus infections, are increasing. Whether it is a lower respiratory tract infection or an upper respiratory tract infection, most of it is caused by a virus, which is called a viral respiratory infection.
Viral infections are acute respiratory infections caused by a variety of viruses. There are viral upper respiratory tract infections and viral lower respiratory tract infections. The former manifests as common cold, acute pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and laryngitis, and the latter manifests as tracheal-bronchitis and pneumonia. The incidence of this type of disease is high, and the population is generally susceptible to infection, and children, the elderly, malnourished and chronically ill people are more susceptible. The incidence is more frequent in winter and spring.
What are the symptoms of respiratory infections?
Corresponding symptoms may appear clinically, such as fever, cough, sputum, and difficulty breathing.
When the throat, nasal mucosa, and nasal cavity are infected, the main manifestations are cough, expectoration, sneezing, runny nose, fever, etc., as well as some symptoms of sore throat. In severe cases, if there is edema in the throat, it will affect Our breathing, even to the development of the vocal cords, may also have symptoms such as vocal cord edema and hoarseness.
What is the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections?
1. Symptomatic treatment
(1) Rest. People who are seriously ill or elderly and infirm should rest in bed, avoid smoking, drink plenty of water, and keep air circulation indoors.
(2) Antipyretic and analgesic If you have fever, headache, muscle aches and other symptoms, you can choose antipyretic analgesics, such as compound aspirin, acetaminophen, indomethacin (indomethacin), pain relief tablets, cloth Luofen et al. Sore throat can be taken orally with various throat tablets such as lysozyme tablets, Jianmin throat tablets, or Chinese medicine Liushen pills.
(3) Decongestants For nasal congestion, nasal mucosa congestion and edema, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride can be used, or 1% ephedrine can be used for nasal drops.
(4) Antihistamines When colds often have increased sensitivity of the nasal mucosa, frequent sneezing and runny nose, antihistamines such as chlorpheniramine maleate or diphenhydramine can be used.
(5) Antitussives For those with obvious cough symptoms, dextromethorphan, pentovirin and other antitussives can be given.
(6) In addition, you can choose to use Bergme’s nebulizer for nebulization treatment. Generally speaking, inhalation of aerosolized drugs through aerosol therapy can cause less harm to the body.
Can respiratory infections be contagious?
Respiratory tract infections have a high incidence in winter, and they are more likely to occur in frail, children, and elderly people. There are many types of respiratory tract infections. The most common one is upper respiratory tract infection. When the body’s resistance is relatively weak, upper respiratory tract infection will spread to form lower respiratory tract infection, and other diseases that are more difficult to treat will form after serious development. So can respiratory infections be contagious?
Ninety percent of respiratory infections are caused by viruses, and bacterial infections are often secondary to viral infections. Respiratory tract infections are contagious, but the speed of infection is not very fast. It is usually spread through droplets, mists, and contaminated items. When the human body’s immunity is strong, contact with this type of transmission route rarely occurs. When the resistance is weak, it is more sensitive to this type of virus. , Extremely vulnerable to infection.
Therefore, respiratory tract infections are contagious, and this type of infectious disease occurs frequently in winter, so people must do a good job of prevention during this season. Especially for children, their body’s immunity is not yet perfect. Parents should avoid taking them to public places when the infection is frequent. Let the children wash their hands and change clothes frequently. Doing these preventive work can reduce the chance of getting sick.
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